What is homoglyph bundling? Does EURid offer it?

Learn about EURid’s data processing procedures, the WHOIS lookup facility, the use of proxy services, IDNs, and gain understanding of homoglyph bundling.

Depending on the script and font used, domain names can look similar to one another. In fact, certain characters or glyphs have shapes that appear to be identical or might be hard to differentiate at first glance. Domain names are considered homoglyphs of each other if all the characters in one domain name are homoglyphs of all the characters of the other domain names, in their respective positions.


A Homoglyph Bundle is a set of domain names that are all homoglyphs of each other.


Certain registries have adopted policies to deal with homoglyph bundles. EURid's approach is to ensure that once a domain name from a particular homoglyph bundle is registered, it is not possible to register any other domain name belonging to the same bundle.


This approach aims to reduce the risk of confusion created by domain names that may appear to be similar.


EURid introduced .ею (.eu in the Cyrillic script) on 1 June 2016 and .ευ (.eu in the Greek script) on 14 November 2019. Since the launch of .ею EURid has enforced the basic rule that the second level script must match the top/level script. Since the 16th of October 2019, Cyrillic domain names are no longer affected by the homoglyph bundle procedure. This is explained by the fact that the Cyrillic extension cannot lead to visual confusion when Cyrillic domain names are compared with Greek or Latin domain names.


Please note that EURid has not permitted script mixing since the launch of IDNs, in order to reduce the risk of confusion associated with similar domain names.



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